EBV encodes different 44 mature BART miRNAs and four mature BamHI-H rightward open reading frame 1 (BHRF1) miRNA. BART miRNAs are expressed in all latency types, while BHRF1 miRNAs are expressed only in type III latency. BART miRNAs are expressed more strongly in EBV-associated epithelial cells than in B lymphocytes. During latent infection, viral miRNAs help to maintain latent infection with expressing limited number of viral genes, which allow virus to evade from host immune surveillance. The aberrant expression of EBV viral miRNAs may contribute to metabolic abnormality and oncogenesis in EBV-infected cells by unbalancing signaling pathways. (modified from Kim Het al. Frontiers in Microbiology, 2017(8): 1318)